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Tactics of SAMBO Wrestling

Chapter 2

Enduring Pursuit to Clean Victory or Victory by Evident Advantage

3. Achieving Ultimate Victory

Ultimate victory may be achieved by employing any throw or submission technique.

There are two basic requirements for a throwing ultimate victory:

Obviously, in order to achieve a throwing ultimate victory, the SAMBist must know how to keep his balance and remain standing to complete the throw while directing his opponent to fall fully on his back.

Powerful submission ploys can stun the opponent when conducted in the instant of the throw or when found on the mat in various ground positions after the throw or throw attempt. Basic tactics for an all out attack leading to submission holds are to isolate the opponent's extremities to be attacked by moving from extremity to extremity exploiting a quantity of ploys for attacking one, two, three, or four of the opponent's limbs.

Good Judgment when Finishing Throws

For a SAMBist to complete his throw for ultimate victory, he must know how to retain his balance and remain on his feet. This is important firstly because retaining his feet after the throw scores ultimate victory in the sport of SAMBO wrestling. Secondly, if the throw cannot score ultimate victory because of the opponent's landing, the standing SAMBist has a better chance to manipulate and pursue his downed opponent into a weaker position.

Thus, the strong SAMBist works to improve his own skills, physical attributes, and stamina to be able to face better and better quality opponents.

To be ready to execute a throw, the SAMBist is forced to use his own body to manipulate the opponent into shifting his body or raising his center of gravity. In such moments, the SAMBist shifts his own legs merely to counterbalance, and then to unbalance, his opponent. A slight misstep is enlarged to present the sudden throwing opportunity. The SAMBist must aspire to create these opportunities in advance, so that he is able to take quick advantage of the openings before his opponent can recover his balance. For this wrestling to be successful, expert movement integrating excellent throwing skills is required.

However the diversity of the throws and setups may daunt the beginning SAMBist in his early studies. Developing their setups and positions for execution-- in the standing position and movements to finish the throws-- requires no little training to ensure completing the techniques for victory.

To finish the throw, the SAMBist must use one of the three stable stances to deliver the technique:

For the SAMBist to recover his own balance or to increase the stability of his stance, he must apply basic motions: He does this to attack with a side drop on the side of one of his legs at the opponent's base while pulling on the opponent's same side sleeve to deteriorate further the opponent's base.

The next throws must be initiated on slightly bent legs: shoulder throw, hip throw, lapel throw, and over turn throw.

To finish these throws, the SAMBist must move his torso and draw the pelvis backwards to step in front of the opponent in a squatting position (facing in the same direction as the opponent) in order to throw the opponent to the mat further decaying his position for follow up attack.

The SAMBist must use all groups of stances to finish throws.

The first group of stances may produce back and front body drops. The second group produces lateral sweeps, rear sweeps, front sweeps, foot clips, outside clips, and pick up techniques.

To conduct throws from the first group of stances achieves delivery for upright leg attacks on both legs and bent torso inside of the opponent's base legs. Such geometry is needed to keep the torso's weight arranged over the feet.

To execute throws from the second group of stances achieves delivery in the last moment of throwing leg attacks on the point where the SAMBist is the one who is able to retain or maintain his balance. The balance recovery is achieved by corresponding bends in the pelvis or weight distribution over straightened legs that are quickly moved back to a balanced base.

For the third group of stances, the SAMBist needs one leg to finish the throw. This group includes the outside major reap (osoto gari), the hip throw sweep (harai ogoshi), the inside hip sweep (uchi mata), the sit through with the shin elevator, the inside knee sweep, and the rear sweep. Another aspect includes the inside hook while still another aspect includes winding throws.

Conducting throws form the first group of stances requires corresponding torso deviations, contrasting leg attacks, taking on the opponent's weight, and bending of the torso inside of his base.

To finish an inside clip requires a temporary loss of balance followed by a quick recovery as the opponent falls fully to his back (after his weight shifts backward over his base legs). This requires landing atop the opponent as part of the finishing technique and demands good orientation, distinguished ability, and exacting movement.

Appropriate Study to Produce the Throw

When the SAMBist attempts to throw, the opponent will apply every possible kind of defensive ploy, so the SAMBist must be able to employ a number of ruses to set up the opponent. Also, it is important that the SAMBist pay distinct attention to directing the opponent's landing in the throw to prevent him from landing on his flank, abdomen, or on all fours. It may be difficult to land the opponent on his back if he has been expertly trained to land on his side.

It must be apparent that throwing an opponent to land on his back is realized after considerable expert preparation and action. This action is called covering the opponent.

Covering the opponent after he has been thrown from standing includes directing the opponent onto his back and preventing his chances to implement aggressive ploys of his own. When the opportunity presents itself, always use both hands to cover the opponent. This may not be the most elegant pose, but the SAMBist will realize satisfaction form the outcome of the situation.

The basic principle behind covering the opponent resides in each SAMBist constructing his own methods to draw the opponent into the cover at the beginning and ending of the throw.

Initiate a cover of the opponent by yanking behind an arm when using the two groups of throwing stances.

Using the first group of techniques/stances, enter to throw with lateral sweeps, front sweeps, pick ups, or throws across the arm. As these throws are executed, the falling opponent can be drawn in behind his arms to have his feet dragged along the mat. Simultaneously, the SAMBist executes the deep step against the opponent's feet to sweep him backward while his hand grips behind the opponent's sleeve. The ability to cover the landing opponent is assisted by the SAMBist's other hand shifting to the opponent's chest and directing him toward the mat.

In the second throwing/stance group, the SAMBist enters to execute rear body drops, front body drops hip throws, hip throw sweeps, outside major reaps, sit throughs with shin elevators, and throw with grip on arm.

By executing these techniques, the falling opponent is set up from the beginning to be covered and may be dispatched by the SAMBist who concentrates on pulling tightly behind the opponent's sleeves to unbalance him, so that he may be guided to fall directly onto his back.

If the goal is to cover the opponent, jerk the opponent's collar from behind his neck to shift him into a position to execute lateral drops and reverse throws across the arm. As the opponent falls, the SAMBist's goal is to draw one of his arms behind the opponent's neck and pull the opponent forward and downward. At the same time, the SAMBist's penetrating step goes through the opponent's base while his other hand pushes on the opponent's breast to achieve directing the opponent down onto his back.

Covering the opponent may spring from various grips and pulls behind the opponent's legs that shift to leg grips that shift to finished throws and take downs. If the SAMBist achieves an outside leg grip, he may use a strong grip and pull behind the leg to conduct either a rear body drop or major outside reap. As the opponent's base is eroded, the SAMBist's other hand may press on the opponent's breast to direct his fall to his full back upon landing on the mat.

If the leg is gripped instead on the inside for a rear sweep, as the leg is raised higher, the SAMBist steps deeply with his legs to drive the opponent backward while pulling the opponent's sleeve toward the mat.

If the inside grip is used for a rear body drop or major outside rea, as the SAMBist raises the opponent's leg through and past his base, he uses his other hand to direct the opponent toward a landing on his back.

To cover an opponent after the double leg throw, use two hands to attain the reverse double leg grip.

To complete the cover, the SAMBist must drop step with penetration at the beginning of the throw to permit his hands to grip, lift, and draw the opponent's legs into themselves. The opponent must never be allowed to move his legs with the SAMBist's grip. This prevents him from implementing ploys of his own or evasions.

To cover the opponent, jerk behind his legs and bump his trunk to initiate the shift of his balance to the rear. This will enable the SAMBist to cover opponent and direct him rearward by locking his hands around the opponent's waist following the drop step penetration.

To cover the opponent during an inside sweep established with an inside hook, the SAMBist uses his own chest to press forward into the opponent's chest. The ability to cover the opponent for the standing hook or to sweep the opponent's leg may require the SAMBist's leg to bend and twist as far as 180 degrees for the standing throw while both of his hands press the opponent back toward the mat.

Par Terre Ploys after the Throw

Par terre ploys may be employed powerfully after standing throws-- particularly after throws that lead to a fall (the opponent landing on his back). If the throw does not lead to total victory, immediately transition to the par terre ploy. If the throw only goes to the fall, powerful SAMBO dictates gearing the fall toward par terre ploys.

The transition from throw to par terre ploy requires painstaking training because an opponent who is caught off guard for a throw is only stunned momentarily before he begins to oppose the desparate situation that he finds himself in.

Par Terre Ploys Found in Various Situations in Ground Wrestling

Par terre ploys may be conducted on the opponent in many and varied situations.

Most ploys develop from such obvious situations as when the opponent is on both knees, on all fours, or face down prone. The hold down also offers many opportunities to conduct the par terre ploy that leads to submission.

Par terre ploys that develop from the hold down may be conducted form the initial hold down grip or in the moment when the hold down begins to slip away.

In the moment that the SAMBist initiates the hold down, the opponent concentrates his attention on defense and may not notice the beginning of the ploy. While the SAMBist has the hold down, he can exploit the opponent's efforts to free himself from the hold down by instituting his ploy designed to work from that hold down. The hold down may be applied to lead the opponent into a preconceived ploy. The pressure of the hold down allows the SAMBist to control his opponent to assure his timely motion into the ploy while maintaining strong downward pressure distracts the opponent from his own offense. This can wear down the opponent's will to win.

Thus, distraction is a key tactic in transforming the hold down grip into the set up for the submission ploy. For this, prepare to attack the opponent's leg by distracting him from the ploy with an attack directed toward his arm. The opponent senses and reacts to the perceived attack on the arm and is surprised by the attack to his leg.

To conduct the par terre ploy from the hold down, the SAMBist must use the element of surprise. For this, decisive grips must be concentrated and not released during the hold down. This is needed to establish the distraction of the opponent's attention.

The SAMBist must concentrate on bringing into motion several tactical motions to successfully conduct the part terre ploy from the basic hold down.

Par Terre Ploys from the Side Hold Down

Powerful par terre ploys from hold downs are divided into the two groups discussed above (opponent is near the mat or in a hold down position). Both groups can be used to conduct ploys, but the SAMBist may be required to alter the match scenario when using ploys from the first group. The basic tactic relies on surprising the prone opponent and exploiting his weakness in the proper moment. Using the first group, the SAMBist carries out the elbow hyperextension across the hip, leg lock, head lock, arm twist with the lifted elbow, and knee twist with an assisting leg.

Executing the second group leading to par terre ploys requires that the SAMBist alter the position of his torso and sometimes alter the position of his opponent's torso in the hold down. Basic tactics enable the application of actions organized to place the opponent in an untenable position. If well done, the opponent will not be able to recognize his danger, so that he is led into the trap. To such aims, the SAMBist carries out the lock across the opponent's free arm, lock across with a transition to another flank, elbow hyperextension aided by the trunk above, reverse elbow hyperextension aided by the arm above, elbow hyperextension after locking hands separate after being pinched between the SAMBist's legs.

Par Terre Ploys from the Hold Down Across or Hold beside the Arm

Par terre ploys from hold downs across or holds beside the arm pertain to both groups. The first ploy group usually do not require situational adjustment by the SAMBist.

Basic tactics dictate using these ploys on the opponent with the element of surprise to exploit his opening.

Implementing ploys from the first group leads to the lock across, the reverse lock across, the elbow bent chocked by a forearm, arm knee twist, and the upward elbow lock.

Conducting ploys from the second group depends on the varied situations of SAMBO wrestling. The basic tactics are conducted on the prone opponent and use complicated motions and attacks to distract the opponent.

Using second group ploys leads to hyperextended elbows aided the upward movement of the trunk, leg lock with the bent leg when the opponent is on his abdomen or passed to one side, or the Achilles tendon stretch on the prone opponent.

Par Terre Ploys from the Hold Down beside the Opponent's Head

The SAMBist does not need to alter the match situation if the basic tactics have surprised and opened up the opponent to exploit his poor position. The ploy ends by carrying out the elbow bend across the forearm.

If the SAMBist must alter the match situation by distracting the opponent's attention, he may attempt an Achilles tendon stretch. This transitions to the cross body arm lock or hyperextension with assistance from his trunk.

Par Terre Ploys from the Hold Down on Top

To initiate par terre ploys from the hold down on top, the SAMBist executes the foundation of SAMBO: the surprise attack to exploit the opened opponent to implement the headlock, elbow bend with the forearm chocked in the joint, or the coiled leg twist.

This ploy demands that the SAMBist alter the basic match situation by distracting the opponent's attention from his own offense and defense to implement the cross body arm lock, arm lock assisted by the legs overtop, leg twist with knee, or by punishing the muscles with a shin.

Par Terre Ploys from the Hold Down Beside the Leg

The hold down beside the leg is the foundation for a surprise attack from the attempted grip on the leg or in the moment when the opponent releases himself from the grip.

Using these ploys leads to the Achilles tendon stretch, bent knee tendon stretch, hip stretch, knee chocked with inserted leg, or Achilles tendon stretch while sitting on the opponent.

Par Terre Ploys when the Opponent Is on His Knees, His All Fours, or Face Down Prone

Par terre ploys developed when the opponent is on his knees, his all fours, or prone and face down demonstrate that the SAMBist is best able to mount his adversary when the opponent is prone and face down. In this situation, the opponent is scored upon when he slips to one side, or he is thrown from standing.

Sometimes, the opponent must be delayed an instant in his actions to permit the SAMBist to complete his ploy. The successful attack derives from distracting the opponent's attention by use of a well conceived plan of attack. A feint leads to a finishing technique by forcing the opponent to react or over react which provides the chance to easily and strongly mount him in the moment of the surprise or distraction.

In the opponent is caught standing on one leg or is defending himself from one knee, this creates the opportunity to hyperextend the elbow with aid from the leg above or the knee chocked from below. This ploy must be conducted by first forcing the opponent from the preliminary position to being on all fours or to the prone and face down position.

Par Terre Ploy Combinations

When the SAMBist conducts his par terre ploys, his opponent may be worn down to the point that his defenses become flawed and fail. If the opponent begins to withdraw from the SAMBist's attack, his lack of offense allows the SAMBist to surmount his defenses with par terre ploys leading to submission. For example, by releasing a hold that the opponent is dedicated to reversing, allows the SAMBist to attack from an opposite and antagonistic angle that offers the chance to shift the initiative to a more fruitful ploy. To continue the stalled initial attack is inadvisable since the opponent will recognize the intent of the ploy and succeed in devising a reliable defense.

To act expediently and preserve the initiative, the SAMBist must exploit the original grip as the first step to transition into a new line of motion: attack. In this case, the transition is a par terre combination that continues the offense by breaking through the opponent's unprepared defense. By shifting directions of attack, the SAMBist outflanks the opponent to open up his most poorly protected limbs for submission.

Par Terre Ploy Combinations Based on Pursuit in Attack

By conducting par terre combinations using continous motion and attack in subsequent ploys leads the opponent into exposing a number of his extremities while allowing the SAMBist to bring many of his limbs into the attack.

From attacking with two limbs to attacking with three limbs allows the SAMBist to shift and exploit more of the opponent's openings more quickly and more strongly. For example, the SAMBist attacks with the reverse elbow bend aided by the leg above after shifting from the elbow bend aided by the arm above. He might attack from the elbow bend aided by the arm above but shift to the elbow bend aided by the leg above the opponent's face to shift to the opponent's leg for the reverse knee chock to shift to the elbow bend aided by the leg above.

To attack using three extremities to using all four limbs would allow the SAMBist to shift to attacks such as the elbow bend gripping the arm between the SAMBist's legs to the elbow bend aided by the leg above.

Par Terre Ploy Combinations Based on Surprise and Modified Attack

Shifting the lines of attack transforms the secondary ploy into a surprise attack achieving successful offense on another of the opponent's limbs. Altering the direction of the ploy exposes the opponent's limbs when he cannot adjust his defenses to the alteration in the new, unexpected attack. Sometimes, a quick and clever alteration in attack can lead to poor defense of the first limb attacked.

A basic combination that shifts from a strongly protected limb to a weaker limb is the knee joint twist assisted by the hip from the knee joint twist assisted by the hip on the leg chock from the elbow bend assisted by the legs above from the elbow bend with the arm gripped between the SAMBist's legs.

A combination based on ploys of altered direction is the leg chock conducted from the elbow bend across the hip form the Achilles tendon stretch across the shin from the knee joint twist.

Par Terre Ploys Transitioned from Standing

When the opponent is engaged in standing wrestling his attention is focused on standing defense and not on guarding his extremities from submission. Therefore, the SAMBist can use the tactics of surprise attack by being prepared for par terre wrestling. The prepared SAMBist begins his planning while wrestling from standing and quickly implements his par terre ploy in the moment of transition from standing to prone wrestling.

To succeed, the SAMBist must adhere to the rules of SAMBO wrestling and not begin to bend or twistt an opponent's limb while wrestling from standing. Also, the SAMBist may not begin the submission attack when only his tow feet are touching the mat. To do so, is not the method to begin ground wrestling.

Such methods of attack reveal, for example, the elbow bend assisted by the legs above. This is prepared from the strong standing sports stance to produce the elbow bend across the forearm with a support arm when the two wrestlers come down to wrestle on the mat. From the strong sports stance, the SAMBist may attain the leg chock from below which the opponent is guided into from the standing wrestling.

4. Victory by Clear Advantage in a Short Time