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Tactics of SAMBO Wrestling

Chapter 2


4. Expert Preparation to Attack for the Throw

When in a match with an opponent who can evade successfully the tie-ups, advantage is gained by excellent SAMBO preparation. Adept standing skills will prepare the SAMBist to maneuver his opponent into unstable and awkward positions from whose recovery strains his resources. This weakened state of recovery can create the opportunity to conduct the successful throw.

Such quick actions identify the SAMBist who has been prepared expertly. These experts are powerful at the points where the two wrestlers' rectangles overlap.

Before this point of controlled overlap, the opponent is free to move his center of gravity either forward or backward without eroding his base. He is said to have a strong stance. After controlling the overlap with the opponent, the ready SAMBist may realize the opportunity for action by pressuring his opponent, so that he must struggle to maintain his base.

Constant attack may deliver the opponent to the ideal opening and location to execute the winning throw. Protracted pressure on the opponent can strain his concentration to prepare for ensuing attacks by causing him to alter his stance imprudently.

For the SAMBist to choose his match preparation, he must consider the physical and moral qualities of both himself and his opponent. The SAMBist must consider his repertoire of ploys, grips, and attacks to select his tools for the bout.

The most common evidence of the prepared SAMBist is his ability to designate and use a particular throw on an opponent.

This throw must be hatched after disrupting the opponent's balance in any direction. The graphic in Fig 7 portrays the various directions for throwing. From each direction there derives a corresponding series of throws.

In order to push or pull the opponent to set up the throw (augmented by the element of surprise), it is recommended when attacking from the front to push backward on the opponent-- to push him in the opposite direction of the intended throw to set him up to augment the power of the attack.

For the appropriate take down or throw, the SAMBist can examine each technique as described in the book SAMBO Wrestling (1957).

Pulling down on the opponent can deliver him into positions where he may not succeed in keeping his leg(s) free from attack. It is recommended to prepare the opponent to work against himself to weaken his stance and his balance. In answer to a pull, the opponent will most often slightly flex his leg at the knee to counter the force of the pull down.

Pulling down on the opponent to one side places the reaction against one leg and prepares the opponent for a rear trip or reap. This same gripping ploy allows successful outside attacks using double leg take downs or scissors.

Fig 7 indicates the directions for unbalancing the opponent leading to throws or take downs: a) near the right side, b) near the left side, c) near the front.
Preparing/setting up the opponent to be thrown may exploit the opponent's reaction to a push or pull. Basically, such preparatory pulls are used to set up backward techniques while such preparatory pushes are used to set up forward techniques.

To prepare a course of direction to augment the rear throw, do pull hard forward and down on the opponent's uniform (in the reciprocal direction to the throw) to exploit his strong counter reaction to the yank. Use such tactical preparation to effortlessly conduct the rear trip, inside hook, rear clip, and double leg take down.

To prepare a course of direction to augment the forward throw, do push the opponent in the reciprocal direction of the throw and exploit the liability inherent in his strong opposing action. Exploit such set ups to conduct effortless forward reaps and head and arm throws.

Always work to contort the opponent's torso in every possible attack to augment the disruption of his stance when preparing him for a series of offensive techniques. While pulling on an opponent's back, the SAMBist should steer the opponent circularly with his hands to the right with his tie-up. This may move the opponent's leg(s) to the front, sides, or back. After such a turning maneuver, it may be easy to conduct a rear throw across the chest, a rear trip, or a rear reap. Another ploy: a strong steering hand to the opponent's left arm may be initiated to rotate him toward the SAMBist's left side to launch a rear trip or side throws across the hip.

Influencing alteration in the opponent's stance may cause the opponent to expose sides or parts of his body that the SAMBist is prepared to attack.

Simultaneous to this exposure, the SAMBist must influence and exploit any erosion in the opponent's center of gravity base. This leads to effortless and safe attack.

For instance, the opponent is in a right side stance. He has concentrated his weight on his right side and forward right leg. This is why the SAMBist then pulls and turns the opponent toward his left side. This grip will draw the opponent into a left stance as the turn is completed, the opponent is delivered into the preordained position. At, or slightly before, the left stance is established, the SAMBist will find that the base beneath the opponent's legs is open to a rear trip or a front throw. By his legs, the SAMBist can draw the arc that can lead to front reaps, inside trips, inside hooks, and front throws. These must be executed as the grips present the opportunity to throw.

Another ploy: the opponent's weight is concentrated into a right stance with the weight on the front leg. Slightly turn him to the left side as if steering an automobile. Move his center of gravity backward this way in order to cross his left side over his right leg(s). This establishes the well conducted rear trip or inside reap behind his leading leg.

Influencing the opponent's retreat from a throwing technique may expose other parts of his body to follow up grips to cause him to lose his balance or allow the SAMBist to go lower inside his stance to search for other throwing opportunities. Such preparations are designated as influenced retreats.

For instance, the SAMBist grips the opponent's belt from behind with his right hand beneath the opponent's arm. When the opponent attempts to improve his position by stepping rightward, the SAMBist bumps his left knee into the opponent's knee from inside. When the opponent is forced to preserve his balance by twisting his torso away from the SAMBist, this retreat sets up a new throwing direction. IN this case, Fig 8 shows a throw conducted across the hip that may also be executed as a front trip.

Fig 8 Preparation/set up to throw the opponent across the hip when he is influenced to react by retreating from a knee bump.
Fig 9 Preparation/set up to throw the opponent across the hip when he is influenced to react by retreating from a shoulder jammed into his chin.
Another ploy: the SAMBist takes a right hand grip on the opponent's back and beneath his right arm with his left hand. If the opponent develops a strong lean, initiating a throw across the hip or as a front trip becomes risky. In order to respond appropriately to the opponent, the SAMBist forces him backward by jamming his own right shoulder into the opponent's chin. After his specific set up, it is easy to conduct a throw across the hip or the front trip/throw (Fig 9).

Throwing the Opponent by Counter Shifting his Weight

When the opponent is attacked by pulling on his uniform, he can recover his strong position by concentrating his weight and leverage in a direction counter to the direction of the attack.

Thus, the SAMBist must be wary of putting additional pressure on the opponent in the attacking direction because there is a liability in the continued attack if the opponent recovers his position. The SAMBist does not want to set up the opponent's counter throw. If the opponent bows or dips his head to counter the forward pull, the SAMBist conducts the throw across the head, a front reap, a throw across the hip, a throw with a grip on one arm, a throw with a grip on both arms, or a throw across the chest.

Another ploy: the SAMBist is wary when attempting to draw the opponent toward him and turns, with the opponent as they near each other. This may focus the opponent's force in the wrong direction to counter the ploy. After this, the SAMBist conducts an inside hook, a rear trip, a rear reap, or the double leg take down throw.

If the SAMBist systematically pulls the opponent rightward, the opponent will unwittingly build his opposing force to that side. In time and direction, his own opposition can be tapped to successfully conduct a side cut down or an outside hook in conjunction with a sit through.

Attack Combinations off of a Throw